Chris Jacobs’ mirrors reflect an eye for natural things

by Bethany M. Dunbar, April 17, 2011

Chris Jacobs of Albany shows off one of his mirrors. The knot holes on the top each have a small mirror under them. Photos by Bethany M. Dunbar

Every so often I get a chance to interview an artist or craftsman with something really spectacular to offer.  They’re tucked away in so many corners of the Northeast Kingdom.  A fun part of my job is finding them to get a story for the paper.

In this case, I’ve known Chris Jacobs for quite some time as a school board member and selectman in Albany.  I was vaguely aware that he was a builder.  I didn’t know until recently (discovered through facebook) that he makes incredible, beautiful, one-of-a-kind framed mirrors out of wood with natural edges.  They aren’t exactly rough edges because they are polished and finished.  Maybe we can say the element of roughness around the edges is completely intact.

Posted here is my interview with Chris.  Let me know if you have a lead for me on a similar artist or craft person making something unusual out there.

The weather is acting like April.  My neighbor is boiling maple sap — I can see the steam from the window.  There is still snow but a LOT less than there was last week.  I heard the mating sound of the snipes, described in one bird book as huhuhuhuhuhu.  It’s when they go high into the air and spin downward, making this noise with their tails.  I’ve seen robins and snowdrop crocuses.

We’re getting there!  Spring in Vermont takes its time, but BOY do we appreciate it when it finally arrives.

Chris Jacobs creates eye-catching mirror frames, the Chronicle, March 16, 2011

by Bethany M. Dunbar

ALBANY — Chris Jacobs is a builder, and he likes to build structures that have an interesting look.  His house and shop are examples, and he has a photo album with more examples — homes built into a side hill, homes with angles, brackets, turrets, round windows and windows that look like collages of glass.

More recently he has turned his creative eye towards building mirror frames.  The result is striking —mirrors surrounded by wood in rich colors and shapes with rough edges created by the tree itself.  The types of wood include cherry, apple, spalted maple, and hop hornbeam — all hardwood.

He calls the rough edge a live edge.

It starts with a live tree.

“I’ll see a tree and say, wow, that looks interesting,” he said.  “I want a tree that isn’t straight.”

He said once he has found that crooked tree, he cuts it down and gets it sawn out into boards.  Then the boards must sit for two years to dry out.  Sometimes they warp slightly.  The warp and the shape determines how large a piece he can cut that will be flat.

“The wood starts off to a certain extent determining the size of it.”

Mr. Jacobs calls his mirror business Reflections in Wood.  He sells mirrors at a few craft shows including Antiques and Uniques in Craftsbury.  A couple of mirrors are up at the Art House in Craftsbury Common.  They are also for sale at the Grand Isle Craft Store.  There will also be some at the Miller’s Thumb in Greensboro.  He has a web site and a facebook page.

One of the first mirrors he built was for his son as a wedding present.  It was about 20 inches by five feet.  His son told him he ought to build more and sell them.

Mr. Jacobs was born near Boston, Massachusetts, and lived in Maryland for a time before going into the Army and serving in Korea.  He came home and lived in Boston again, then Connecticut, where he worked for Pratt and Whitney aircraft as a test technician.

He has always enjoying building and creating things and started a business in Connecticut called Antique Forgery.  It started with an old iron toaster he repaired in such a way it looked very much like the original antique piece.  He did a lot of making second andirons for people with old houses.  He got to know some of the dealers pretty well.  Once he was showing a dealer his work, and the dealer told Mr. Jacobs he scared him because he couldn’t tell the difference between the original real piece and the copy.

Mr. Jacobs told the dealer he always put a mark on his own work.

The area where he lived in Connecticut began to get developed much more, and he decided to move to Maine where he lived for eight years.

His wife’s, Sharon’s, parents lived in New Zealand.  With children it became difficult and cost-prohibitive to travel there for a short time, so the Jacobs family decided to pack up and move instead of making a short visit.

And even though they enjoyed their time in New Zealand very much, eventually they found their way back here.  Even Sharon Jacob’s parents moved back to the United States at the same time.

The Jacobs family has been in Albany for many years now.  Mr. Jacobs served his town for four years on the school board and seven or eight years as a selectman.

He enjoys serving the town despite the occasional controversy.

“My naive perspective on the thing is that you’re supposed to be working for the people,” he said.

He said he was glad to be helping on the town clerk’s office and fire station plans in order to make sure they were done right.

These are some more example of Mr. Jacobs mirrors.

Mr. Jacobs has an album showing some of the homes and projects he has built.


Snow and a raffle

by Bethany M. Dunbar, April 10, 2011

Hi folks.  The snow is still here, but it’s predicted to be 80 degrees tomorrow.  So guess what?  It can’t last. We are seeing robins and redwing blackbirds, snowdrop crocuses are out, and geese are heard honking their way back north to us.

First of all, sorry for not posting for so long.  I’ve been working on a book which is expected out here in Vermont in June.  It will be called Kingdom’s Bounty and those of you who have been reading Vermont Feature all along will recognize some of the people and places in this book.  It’s a guidebook about farmers and food in the Northeast Kingdom and I can’t wait.  It’s my first book and incredibly exciting.

I will keep you posted.  We plan a summer signing tour and photo show.  My publisher is Nan Richardson of Umbrage Editions, who lives in Brooklyn — and Barton part of the year.

Meanwhile I wanted to post something this week about a story I did for the Chronicle that should have an even wider audience if it possibly can.  So please, repost this, share it, tell your friends, whatever you have to do to get the word out about David Wieselmann.

His friend Julie Poulin and he are holding a raffle to raise money to get him to a therapy program and get him a piece of equipment that could help him walk again.  He was injured in a mountain bike accident last year.  If he was a wealthy man, he’d already have the equipment and therapy he needs.  Seems to me a story about yet another failure of our health care system thank you very much.

He doesn’t have time to wait for the politics to get straightened out so everyone gets the coverage they need.  He needs this right away because the first year of this particular type of injury is critical.

Julie sent me an e-mail after the story came out in the paper to say the story was really helpful, but they still have about 85 tickets to sell.  So if anyone out there is interested in taking a chance on a guy who could really use a little help here, please check it out:

The drawing was supposed to happen this week, but it’s postponed for three weeks to try to sell the rest of the tickets.

Here’s the story, with updated information about the drawing:

Raffle benefit could help injured man walk again

David Wieselmann, hurt in a mountain bike accident in June, is determined to walk again. Photo by Bethany M. Dunbar

by Bethany M. Dunbar, the Chronicle, March 30, 2011

ST. JOHNSBURY — David Wieselmann is determined.  But time is short.

Mr. Wieselmann hurt himself in a mountain bike accident nine months ago, and his legs are paralyzed.  There’s a chance he could walk again if he can gain access to an $18,000 piece of equipment and physical therapy that has proven effective in helping people with spinal cord injuries walk again.

“The first year of this injury is pretty critical, and exercise is the key,” Mr. Wieselmann said.

The first year is up in June.  In order to try to raise enough money to buy the equipment, his friend Julie Poulin — an equally determined human being if not even more so — started a raffle with some major prizes.  Top prize is a $5,000 Visa card.  Other prizes include a season pass at Burke Mountain, a two-night ski and stay package at the Tram House Lodge at Jay Peak, individual and family passes from Kingdom Trails, and a long list of other smaller prizes.

The drawing for this raffle will be held at Trout River Brewing Co. in Lyndonville on April 29 at 7 p.m.  Tickets are $100 apiece or a split ticket is available for $50.  Only 300 will be sold.

The goal is to raise $30,000.  Of that, $18,000 will be for the functional electrical stimulation (FES) bicycle, and the remainder will be for therapy at a center called Journey Forward near Boston, Massachusetts.  The founder of the program was hurt in a swimming accident in the year 2000 and could not even breathe on his own, to say nothing of walking.  But after years of therapy he got to a point where he could not only breathe, he could also use his hands again and he can walk.

“He walked a mile to raise money for Journey Forward,” Mr. Wieselmann said.

A key to the therapy is making the muscles that are not getting any activity in a wheelchair active again so they don’t atrophy.  Weight-bearing exercises are used, and the legs of the paralyzed person are forced to move and stimulated with electricity.

Mr. Wieselmann got a chance to try out the equipment, called an FES bike, for one day at the facility in Boston and he knew immediately that it was extremely helpful.

“It was the first really good aerobic workout since my accident,” he said.  His heart rate got up, he worked up a sweat, and the blood got flowing even in his legs.  They felt warm; he felt good.

Even in cases where this therapy doesn’t get someone walking again, it is helpful for the person’s health in lots of ways.  There are lots of side effects of paralysis that can be minimized with this therapy.  Among them:  osteoporosis, muscle calcification, skin problems, and blood pressure problems.  Mr. Wieselmann has already had trouble with low blood pressure as his heart tries to pump blood into his inactive lower body.

Before he was hurt, Mr. Wieselmann lived to ski, mountain bike, and kayak.  Every Tuesday he used to ride his bike from St. Johnsbury to Morgan, kayak around Seymour Lake, and then back to St. Johnsbury.

“I just love exercise,” he said.  Now he gets physical therapy three days a week but the therapist is not set up with the FES bike.

“There’s none of these in Vermont,” he said.

He got a chance to get on his feet and bear some weight with help from a trainer at Total Fitness in Lyndonville, who rigged up a painter’s harness.

His family has a camp in Morgan, and Julie Poulin and her family were their neighbors.  They met at the Tamarack Grill at Burke Mountain where Mr. Wieselmann used to work as a waiter and have been friends ever since.

“It’s my favorite place on the planet,” said Mr. Wieselmann about Seymour Lake.

Mr. Wieselmann’s mother was born in Vermont and her family has been here since the late 1800s.  She went to the University of Vermont.

Mr. Wieselmann was born in Colorado and started skiing when he was three years old.  He went to college in San Francisco and lived there until six years ago and studied film and broadcasting.

All the time he was living other places he was thinking about skiing.  When he came to Vermont he realized if he lived here he could ski every day if he worked at Burke.

Once he broke his collarbone during the ski season, but even that didn’t stop him.

“I stopped for a week and snowshoed every day,” he said, but after the first week he skied with a sling.

The accident happened when he was mountain biking with friends and hit some soft ground.  His front wheel sunk into it, and he went over the top of the bike.  He was wearing a helmet.  His head hit the ground.  He remembers everything.  He got up and then collapsed.  The break was just below his shoulder blades.

Since then he has been researching possible therapies.  Christopher Reeve, who played Superman in a movie and hurt himself in a horseback riding incident, started a foundation that has made huge strides in spinal cord injury research, Mr. Wieselmann said.

“As cheesy ball as it sounds, he really was Superman for this cause,” Mr. Wieselmann said.

If he raises enough money to buy the FES bike, Mr. Wieselmann said he would be willing to let others in the area use it when he is not using it.  It’s useful for stroke victims as well as victims of spinal cord injuries, he said.

Ms. Poulin said there are still a lot of tickets left to sell to raise the money needed.  She has been running spots on the radio and planned to sell tickets at a beach party at Jay Peak.

“This is it.  It has to work,” said.  She said her pitch to the beach party will be:  “You could leave here today and know that you’ve changed someone’s life forever.”

Raffle tickets are available at Poulin Lumber in Derby, Rowe Designs and Custom Framing in Newport, Ben’s Bootcamp in Derby and Lyndonville, Trout River Brewing Company in Lyndonville, the Boxcar and Caboose Bookshop and Café in St. Johnsbury, and Eastern Main Market and Deli in St. Johnsbury.

The tickets are also available online with a credit card at under “Help David Walk Again.”

For more information about the therapy program, look at

Beside the top three prizes mentioned above, prizes are being donated by East Burke Sports, Village Sports Shop in Lyndonville, the River Garden Café in East Burke, Green Mountain Books and Prints in Lyndonville, Ben’s Bootcamp and Edgewater Creations jewelry in Newport.

RedHouse and the Long Trail

Chris Doncaster, Travis LeBlanc and Mark Fortin are RedHouse. Photo by Bethany M. Dunbar

by Bethany M. Dunbar, September 7, 2010

Happy Birthday to Mark Fortin of RedHouse, a band I just wrote about for the Chronicle. I will post the article here and just want to add that this is a young band with lots of potential.  They don’t play their own original music as much as they should — at least it didn’t seem that way at the Barton fair where I heard them recently.  These guys are loaded with talent.

Through the magic of facebook I realized today’s is Mark’s birthday and a good day to post this article.

I also wanted to mention today that I just rejoined the Green Mountain Club.  I’m not a joiner.  In most cases I stay out of things because I might need to write about these subjects and should at least try to remain neutral.

But there are a few subjects where I have given up all semblance of objectivity — mostly Vermont’s cows and mountains.  I love them too much to pretend I don’t.

I used to be a member of the Green Mountain Club and as it happens I had let that membership slip.  But hiking the Long Trail is just one of the purest joys that exists on the planet and I am always supportive in my heart even if some years my purse has been a bit empty to maintain the membership.

Recently we wrote about the fact that the Green Mountain Club has applied for party status in the Public Service Board’s case for wind towers on the Lowell Mountains.  I grew up underneath those mountains in Craftsbury and hiked around them when I went for a three-week short course at Sterling College back when I was in high school.  It’s a favorite part of the Long Trail for me just across from the Lowell Mountains simply because it’s so close by.

We all want better sources for electricity, but our options are just not this limited.  The fall quarterly publication of the Green Mountain Club has an article that puts the whole thing in perspective quite well.  You can check it out at

Yes, I know.  It’s Tuesday, time to go make another Chronicle.  Hope you all had a wonderful Labor Day weekend.  The header shot of fall leaves this week is one I took on August 31.  Enjoy.  We all know what’s coming.

RedHouse rocks the fairgrounds

by Bethany M. Dunbar, the Chronicle, September 1, 2010

BARTON — For those who wish to rock, try RedHouse.

The band is young but plays music from their parents’ time as if it was their own.  In fact it is.  They grew up with it, play it well, and have created their own songs with the passion and energy of the bands created by people their age in decades long gone by.

RedHouse has produced a CD of original music called Midnight Train which features classic rock style songs, along with jazz and blues.

RedHouse rocked the Orleans County Fair this year.  The band played after the extreme tractor pulls on Saturday night, August 21, in the beer tent.  A well-known cover band at area bars, RedHouse is a dance band.  People started dancing in the damp grass under the tent about as soon as the band started and kept going well into the night.

Mark Fortin is the guitar player, Chris Doncaster plays bass, and Travis LeBlanc is the drummer.  Mr. Fortin and Mr. LeBlanc both sing.

The band started out with Bachman Turner Overdrive’s “Taking Care of Business” and went on to play Led Zeppelin, “Mustang Sally,” and “Old Time Rock and Roll” by Bob Seger, among many others.

RedHouse plays often at Jasper’s in Newport and has played at Higher Ground and Nectar’s in the Burlington area, Malarkey’s in Morrisville, private parties, and other venues.

In a telephone interview Monday morning Mark Fortin said the band has been together about a year and a half and gets about two or three gigs a week.

Chris Doncaster is the best bass player Mr. Fortin has ever played with, he said, including time he spent in Nashville when he was playing guitar for Wayne Warner’s band.  Mr. Doncaster has a degree from Johnson State College in jazz performance.

The band got its name from the little red house on Mr. Doncaster’s family farm where they started jamming together.  Mr. Doncaster is a dairy farmer when he’s not a bass player.

Mr. Fortin went to the Berklee College of Music in Boston  for two years.  He is a carpenter with his father when he’s not making music.  He drove trains for a time but that work took him away from home nights and weekends.  It was a job he liked and had great benefits.  He said he expects he will get back to it eventually for that reason.  But for now he has some flexibility to make music and is taking advantage of that.

Mr. Fortin had written most of the original songs when he got together with Mr. Doncaster and Mr. LeBlanc, who has also studied music at Johnson State College.  The three of them put the songs together and made them into what they are now.

The original music seems to go over well when they play it at bars and other events, Mr. Fortin said.  People keep dancing just as they do with cover songs.  The songs have also got some air time on Burlington radio stations WBKM and WIZN.

Mr. Fortin clearly loves playing the guitar and is good at it.  He started singing more recently and discovered that he enjoys that aspect of performing as well.

Travis LeBlanc does some of the singing for RedHouse, and sometimes the two sing in harmony.

RedHouse plays the songs they play because the band members find much of today’s popular music boring.

“It’s just all a mass-marketed flavor of the month,” said Mr. Fortin.  He said it has no spunk and no originality.

The rock musicians of the past were thinking less about marketing and more about the message, their passion and their music.

“They put a little more of their soul into it,” he said.

“Music is a gift.  We try to do some positive things with it.  Try to give back where you can,” he said.

The fair and the Primary

The Zipper is a popular ride at the Orleans County Fair. Photo by Bethany M. Dunbar

by Bethany M. Dunbar, August 29, 2010

It was a zooey week in the news business.  Never before have the Orleans County Fair and the Primary Election had to be covered in the same week’s paper.

I felt a little like a hamster in one of those little running wheels.  Monday I processed almost 60 photos, handled the e-mail, phone calls and letters to the editor as usual on a Monday.  Tuesday I stayed at the office until 2:15 a.m.  About an hour of that was sitting around after we were done working, just talking it over and unwinding.

But after two days of such intensity it was not likely I would fall asleep the instant my head hit the pillow anyway.

We collect results for our charts from all of Orleans County’s town clerks and a few in Caledonia, Essex and other counties.  It’s not the whole state, but it’s more than a lot of papers do on Election night.  It’s exciting to be in the office and be among the first to know who won the local races.  When we call the candidates for comments, sometimes the reporter is the one giving that person the totals and the news of the night.

What do you think of the Primary results, or — in the case of the Democratic gubernatorial race — lack thereof?  I’d love to hear your comments on either the election or the fair.

The fair was fantastic this year.  My favorite statistic is one told to me by Stanwood “Doc” Churchill as he watched the harness racing on the new track surface.  The new surface — and increased purses thanks to Fran and Melanie Azur — drew 69 race horses.  Last year there were 47 harness racing horses (These numbers are not counting the show horses, and pulling horses and ponies).

Another plus this year was the pasteurizer for milk.  The fact that farmers were getting better premiums (cash prizes) and would get paid for the milk meant more milking dairy cows were on hand as well.

Eliza Doncaster of Irasburg leads her prize Jersey cow, Courage, back to the barn after showing her. Photo by Bethany M. Dunbar

I’m not really into extremely large extremely loud modified tractors.  They looked about as much like tractors as a rocket ship looks like a ox cart.  But clearly the crowd was loving this new competition.  The grandstand was full during these events and that’s got to be good for the bottom line.

We went to see the band RedHouse Saturday night in the beer tent, and that was a lot of fun.  Look for my review in this next week’s paper.

Bit by bit the fair committee is making improvements every year.  The bathrooms were extremely clean this year.  Kids got to pay one price and ride all the rides.  Things seemed to be going smoothly in general.

We had a taste of maple cotton candy from the maple shack and what a treat.  It can’t really be good for you, but it can’t be as bad for you as that pink stuff.

The fair is a turning point in the season.  Summer is about over as evidenced by the bounty of vegetables on display there.  We are getting a few cool evenings, and the kids are getting ready to go back to school.  There are a few orange maple leaves here and there.

Well folks it’s way too nice out to stay in front of the computer today.  Hope you all had a good week and have good things to look forward to in September.

Check out the Chronicle’s web site for lots more demolition derby photos and other shots that didn’t fit into the newspaper.  We will have more results and photos in the paper and on the web site this coming week as well.

A prize-winning cabbage at the Orleans County Fair. Photo by Bethany M. Dunbar

Northeast Kingdom Music Festival

by Bethany M. Dunbar, August 21, 2010

There’s a sort of joke among journalists of a certain age.  In the old days, older ladies used to write town columns about who visited whom around town.  A few papers still carry some of these social notes from all over.  Often they would end with the line, “A good time was had by all.”

It’s never really true, of course, and there is absolutely no way for a reporter to know how many of the people at a given event are having a good time.

Still I found myself rolling that phrase around in my head after this year’s Northeast Kingdom Music Festival because in this case, it sure did seem to be the case.

The festival was beautiful, the weather was exactly perfect, the music was unbelievable.  I will post here my review for the Chronicle, in which I didn’t say that clichéd phrase.  But oops, I said it here.  I can get away with more here it turns out.

I also have more space here so I’m going to post a bunch more pictures.  If you were there, you might enjoy them.  If you weren’t, well, you can become inspired to go next time.  Until then you will have to be satisfied by another common cliché (in certain baseball circles):  Wait ‘til next year.

O'Death. Photo by Bethany M. Dunbar

NEKMF — it’s all about the music

by Bethany M. Dunbar, the Chronicle, August 11, 2010

ALBANY — It’s hard to know what to expect from a band called O’Death.

That is, if you have never heard of them, which I had not.  In fact I had never heard of any of the bands performing at the Northeast Kingdom Music Festival this year and really didn’t have a clue what they might do.

I did notice on the festival’s web site that that many of the bands mentioned banjos and bluegrass or bluegrass rock.  It’s the kind of dance music I grew up with — intensified a notch or two.  Or seventeen.

Listening to O’Death on Saturday night, August 7, swathed in pink revolving light from the incredible lighting system at the festival, I had a thought of how to describe them — Charlie Daniels meets Metallica.

This band was really, really good.  They screamed at times, and it was a bit loud and screamie for me, but the music was fantastic and great for dancing.  They really got people pumped up.

The fiddle player, Bob Pycior, was particularly amazing and shredded his bow almost completely before the show was over.  High energy doesn’t even begin to describe this guy or this band.

“I don’t want to impale anyone, but here,” he said and tossed the bow out to the crowd at the end of their show.

At some point in the concert, band members from another band at the festival came up to join O’Death on the main stage.  That band, called Hoots and Hellmouth, is based in Philadelphia.

Whoever wrote the description for their web site did a wonderful job:  “New music for old souls…acoustic mayhem” it says.

“At once fresh and vibrant, yet somehow strangely familiar.”

Hoots and Hellmouth had played earlier on Saturday in the tent stage, and their music was wicked lively and well done — a little less hard-edged than O’Death’s.

In my mind one of the best bands of the day was another bluegrass-type dance band.  Called the Holy Ghost Tent Revival, the band is based in Greensboro, North Carolina.  They sang in harmony and had an irresistible foot-stomping dance beat, and a trombone among other instruments.  They played twice in the tent but could have been a main stage event easily.

Shakazoba played something they call Afrofunk, which was funky and fun.  The Low Anthem played in the midafternoon — sweet, low, soothing music that you might play at home on Sunday morning.  Their instruments included harmonica, xylophone, saw, and bottles of leftover prescription pills used for percussion in a song about the apothecary.

“I met her down at the apothecary…  With her saccharin luster she’s a hard little pill.”

The less rambunctious tone of this band was fine because after all, it’s not that easy to dance from 4 in the afternoon to midnight without stopping.

We had brought a tent, and after O’Death played we turned in.  But we could hear the Pimps of Joytime from there.  Even in the quiet campground we could tell by the crowd’s reactions they were having a great time.

One of the most entertaining acts of all on Saturday was a two-piece band and comedy routine in the tent Called the Two Man Gentleman Band, they were from New York City.  The music was ragtime, the suits were roaring ‘20s, and lyrics were stuff like this:

“Oh Man.  Oh Man.  Oh when I get you into my minivan.”

One song called “Fancy Beer” went over really well.

And the duo really got everyone laughing and singing along with their rendition of the Ghostbusters theme.

Suffice it to say that these bands might not be on the cover of the Rolling Stone just yet, but the level of talent at the Chilly Ranch this year was huge.

At least three or four of these bands are groups I would drive some distance to see again now that I know they exist.

The crowd was larger than the only other time I had been to this festival, which was the first year, eight years ago.  But it was not too big at all.  In fact, there was plenty of room.

The weather was spectacular, there was plenty of water, tent sites, parking, toilets, a couple of nice food booths including a wood-fired pizza oven, emergency workers were standing by, and the crowd was mellow.  Kids were everywhere, and people seemed to be really there for the music.

It’s a lovely festival, a beautiful spot, well organized and lots of fun.

Congratulations to Bill Pearce, Ed DuFresne who found the talent, and all the volunteers who made it such a pleasure to be there.

If you are thinking about going next year and are wondering whether the bands will be something you might like, you can always listen to samples online.  The NEKMF web site has links to each band’s web site.

My sweetheart, Jim Bowes, and me at the Northeast Kingdom Music Festival.


One of the paintings in Hester Curtis's Assimilation series. Photo by Bethany M. Dunbar

by Bethany M. Dunbar, August 11, 2010

Any artist, writer, musician, or photographer who wants to create his or her own style has thought about past works.  We are influenced by what our friends say and do, by the work of people we admire, by the masters.

When I look at Hester Curtis’s major work, Assimilation — a series of paintings — I know that I’m under her influence.  I know that I admire her work and find it truly amazing.

I interviewed Hester in 1986 and was thrilled to be able to find a copy of the clipping and photograph of that story for her son, Mark, who has a studio at the Art House in Craftsbury Common where Hester’s work is on display for the rest of the month of August.

She was so dramatic.  I asked Mark if he remembered at what point he realized how awesome his mother was, and he just shook his head and laughed.

I’m happy to say that she loved my original article.

“Bethany!” she said with that dramatic look that reminded me at times of Carol Burnett and one of her dramatic characters.  “You are the Queen of the Declarative Sentence!”

So I probably should get a tattoo with that description.  It’s pretty flattering, and I have certainly remembered it.  We might say I have assimilated the compliment and tried to live up to it.

I am posting here the article I wrote for the Chronicle last week about Hester and her son.  It was so enjoyable to talk to Mark about his mom and his own life and work.

I hope you will check out the story and the show and let me know what you think.

Also in art news — my friend and colleague Jennifer Hersey Cleveland’s Flower Porn photography show is still up at the Hangman Gallery in Hardwick and will appear after that at good ol’ Parker Pie.  Life is good.

Check out the Chronicle’s web site for a story by Joseph Gresser about changes at the Orleans County Fair.  It’s almost fair time, and you can find that story and  link to the fair’s web site there.

Curtis show puts reality together in an abstract way

by Bethany M. Dunbar, the Chronicle, August 4, 2010

CRAFTSBURY COMMON — Assimilation is not abstract art.  But the way these recognizable images are put together creates new meanings and ideas and definitely might generate some questions.

Assimilation is the centerpiece of works by East Craftsbury artist Hester Curtis which are hanging at the Art House in Craftsbury through August.  It’s worth a look.  I first saw this work when it was being created and had the advantage of getting to know the artist quite well.  At the time we were renting the farm where Hester Curtis lived from Al and Joan Fuller (Hester’s sister and brother-in-law).  Hester used to watch my kids sometimes if they got bored helping me with heifer chores.

A painting in Hester Curtis' Assimilation series.

Being with Hester was never boring — for me or for them.  We all gravitated to her like she was a planet.  We were a few of her moons.

Hester had a brilliant mind, a dramatic demeanor, and a great sense of humor.  By the time I met her, she had beat a brain tumor and learned to use her weak hand for painting.  She was left-handed but had broken her wrist, and it healed badly.  So she had to switch to painting with her right hand.

I wrote about Assimilation for the Chronicle in 1986 and managed to find that article when I was getting ready to write this one.  For that story I took a photo of her.  She posed beside one of her wall-sized paintings, chin on her hand, pretending to study the work or attempt to understand it.

Hester Curtis died in 2000.  Her son Mark Curtis, himself an artist, has a studio at the Art House and put the show together.

Assimilation is not easy to understand completely.  The wonderful thing is you can get something out of it anyway if you don’t worry too much about what every little detail might mean.  In that way it reminds me of some Bread and Puppet shows and certain poems that I just enjoy even though they don’t make perfect day-to-day sense on the face of them.

Mark Curtis mentions poetry when discussing his mother’s work in a two-page description he wrote for the show, called, “Hester Curtis and Assimilation — The Painted Thought.”

“Her painting is like vague poetry, as you can see — at once kind of familiar but mostly inscrutable and highly personal.  You have the sense of a secret, playful geometry going on within her paintings — somewhat like Piero, her favorite artist — and of hidden meanings.  The more I look at her paintings, the more questions I wish I had asked.”

The first frame in Assimilation is Alice in Wonderland who seems to be falling into the Grand Canyon to start things off.  A rainbow arches above her like the tail of an Alice comet.  Later she contemplates a space shuttle, a group of professors, so much more.  One painting is a mirror image of “The Sleeping Gypsy” by Henri Rousseau with a little Einstein in the corner, also apparently trying to figure things out.  He has a fiddle.

Another work is a labyrinth in the shape of a brain, with a thread to find your way — Ariadne’s Thread, a reference to Greek mythology, with the thread as a key to the creative process.

The paintings each have a frame painted on them in the shape of a television screen — one of the ultimate assimilation machines.

The show is meant to be a smaller model of what she intended to create.  It was going to be a series of wall-sized frescoes.  Her plan was to create a structure underground in the desert somewhere in the western United States because the conditions would be right for frescoes there.

Ms. Curtis studied fresco with the masters and was commissioned to paint murals for Saint Brigid’s Church in Lexington, Massachusetts, and in homes in Craftsbury.  The Art House show includes some of her early work and other pieces besides the Assimilation series.

Mark Curtis had a stroke that took away the use of his dominant hand as well, his right hand.  He learned how to paint with his left hand.

“If you have to switch, you know, it’s just what you have to do,” he said.  Mr. Curtis moved to Vermont in 1992 and divided his time between Vermont and Gloucester, Massachusetts, for five years.  He had a gallery there.

Mark Curtis’ work shows hints of his mother’s influence but is in general more what some might consider traditional or realistic.  Many of the pieces are still lifes and portraits.  Some of the still lifes are images of refractions of light through a glass of water.  When you bend light, what happens?  It seems like a question Mr. Curtis’ mother would have enjoyed considering too.

Mark Curtis stands by a still life painting he did. Photo by Bethany M. Dunbar

The Lazors and the organic dairy movement

Jack Lazor of Westfield, Vermont, stands in a field of soybeans. Photo by Bethany M. Dunbar

by Bethany M. Dunbar, August 2, 2010

Over the years working as a journalist in a small state I’ve had the opportunity to meet some fascinating, influential Vermonters.  People in the world of politics and business, people who really care and who are trying to make a difference.

Jack and Anne Lazor of Butterworks Farm in Westfield come to mind immediately when I think of people who have brought about real change, change that matters and helps the whole state.

I interviewed Jack last week and will post that story here.  I wanted to add a little background to it by posting something I wrote about their organic farm in 1993.  Over the years I have been there a number of times and seen Jack and Anne at meetings and conferences.  I don’t remember when I started going to the annual Northeast Organic Farming Organization (NOFA) winter conferences, but the conference itself has grown by leaps and bounds right along with the organic and local food movement.

The neat thing from an economic perspective is that the movement is not only about healthy foods — it’s about healthy rural economies.

When the Lazors came to Westfield in the 1970s, organic dairy farming was a radical, fringe idea.  It’s not so fringe any more.  At this point there are 39 organic dairies in Orleans County.  There is no doubt in my mind that every single one of these 39 farmers saw what Jack and Anne Lazor were doing and saw how well it was working.  Many if not most of them have probably consulted with the Lazors about organic methods.  Jack loves to talk about it all and has shared his knowledge with anyone who asked.

So in this way I’d like to say thanks to the Lazors for all they have done.  The strength of the organic movement is self-evident, but to show you more clearly what I mean about that I will also post here a story I did in May of this year about the state of organic dairying in Orleans County these days.

Don’t forget to post your comments, thoughts, and ideas for me.  I appreciate all the feedback.  It means a lot.

Two Orleans County ag businesses receive processing grants

by Bethany M. Dunbar, the Chronicle, July 21, 2010

Jack Lazor and Ed Champine talk about the crops on Butterworks Farm in Westfield. Photo by Bethany M. Dunbar

Two Orleans County businesses have been awarded grants for agriculture-related processing.

Phil Brown of Vermont Rabbitry in West Glover got $15,500 and Jack Lazor of Butterworks Farm in Westfield got $14,000 from the Vermont Farm Viability Program, part of the Vermont Housing and Conservation Board.

Phil Brown said it was the first time he’d ever applied for a grant.  He had to do a business plan and provide matching funds.

“It was a really good shot in the arm,” he said.

The funds are allowing him to improve and expand his butchering facilities.  He will start making ground rabbit and sausage, and he has put in a vacuum packaging machine.

Rabbit meat is high in protein, low in cholesterol, and low in calories, which makes it an extremely healthy meat.  For those who have tried wild rabbit meat, Mr. Brown said it is not at all the same.  Wild hare is darker meat and tougher, he said.

Most of Mr. Brown’s meat goes to markets in Burlington — to Healthy Living natural foods market and the City Market.

The farmers who raise rabbits for him are in the St. Albans area.

Mr. Brown handles more than just rabbit meat.  Last year he cut and wrapped 125,000 pounds of beef, pork, and lamb.  He packaged 52 moose, 100-plus deer, 12 or 13 bears not to mention domestic meat animals.

“Tomorrow I will do a bear, half a beef and three pigs and will be done by 9:30 or 10 in the morning,” he said on a recent Tuesday.

Mr. Brown has one butcher working for him, Gary Lanoue, who has been cutting up meat since he was ten years old.  Mr. Lanoue’s father taught Mr. Brown’s father how to cut and wrap meat.

Mr. Brown employs a couple of other people part-time.

The grant funds allowed Mr. Brown to put in a new floor, redo three or four walls, and put in plastic molding so the room is waterproof.

Phil Brown of Vermont Rabbitry in Glover improved his facilities with a grant. Photo by Bethany M. Dunbar

He mentioned that Louise Calderwood, a Craftsbury consultant and former deputy commissioner of agriculture, helped him with the required business plan.

Business has been steady.

“It keeps rolling in the door, and I’m happy with it,” he said.  “I’ve thought about adding on a slaughterhouse for local animals.”

Butterworks Farm in Westfield is best known for its organic yogurt, which Jack and Anne Lazor have been making and selling for decades.

The Lazors grow their own grains for their Jersey herd and have started branching out into crops for human consumption.

“We’ve been growing wheat since the very beginning,” said Mr. Lazor.

The grant funds will help Butterworks Farm to process more types of grain crops.  Oats require two steps in processing, and up until now Mr. Lazor has been hauling his up to a processor in Canada called Golden Grains or Les Moissons d’Or in Compton, Quebec.  Mr. Lazor has been taking oats and spelt up there for processing, but there are some disadvantages.  The Canadian company keeps the hulls and small oats that are filtered out in hulling.

Once the oats are hulled, they must be steamed to stabilize the fat, and then flaked.

A company called Eric and Andy’s used to sell oatmeal they grew and processed in Cabot, Vermont, and Mr. Lazor said the Canadian company bought their roller mill.  Mr. Lazor said he thinks Eric and Andy were ahead of their time.

If all the processing is to be done in Quebec, that means trucking raw oats, bringing back the hulled oats, then taking them back to Canada for the steaming and flaking.  There are complicated border requirements for trucking food both on the way up and the way back.

Also, laws of the road seem to be more stringent in Canada.

“You just don’t drive a Vermont farm truck on the roads in Quebec,” he said.

For all these reasons, plus the cost, Mr. Lazor’s plan is to do the first part, the hulling, on his farm.  He will continue, at least for now, to truck the hulled oats to Canada for the final processing.

The cost of setting up a hulling system has been much more than what the grant will cover.

“We’ve already got $30,000 invested right now,” he said.  He had to build a tower on to the top of one of his barns to reach 55 feet tall for the grain elevators.  He bought the huller second-hand, and he still needs a paddy table, so named because the process is similar to rice processing.

The paddy table will separate the hulled oats from the hulls completely, and that involved seven levels of screening.

“It’s all done by shaking,” he said.  A new one costs $40,000.

This year the Lazors are growing 40 acres of wheat, 50 acres of barley and peas, one and a half acres of flax, 50 acres of soy beans, 50 to 55 acres of corn, plus rye, sunflower seed and hay.

He has about 45 milking Jersey cows, and a dozen employees.

On July 28, Butterworks Farm hosted a Northeast Organic Farming Association of Vermont workshop on growing heirloom wheat varieties.

The Lazors came to Westfield in the 1970s.

“We were organic and we didn’t even know it.  We knew we didn’t want to be regular,” he said.  The farm inadvertently started a local movement as many conventional farms around Westfield, Jay and Troy saw the success the organic dairy achieved and decided to convert to organic methods.

“People are so keen on wanting to have meaning in their food,” he said.  Over the years Mr. Lazor has become someone other farmers come to for help getting started or solving problems on their organic farms and he is often asked to speak or host workshops.

“Anne is really the superstar,” he said.  “I’m just the outgoing one.”

Other grant recipients in this round were Gleason Grains, an organic milling facility in Bridport, Sharon Beef, and Spring Hill Poultry Processing in Morrisville.

Last year, Brault’s Market in Troy was one of four businesses that received grants to help build an addition to increase the size of the processing and retail space.  Last year’s grants were $40,000 in all divided among the four.

Ela Chapin, the program director, said Tuesday the Vermont Farm Viability Program has worked with over 300 farms since 2003 making business plans and helping to implement them.  The program has helped cheesemakers, vegetable processors and on-farm meat processors.  She said in many cases, farmers’ business plans have been restricted by the lack of processing infrastructure, which led to the current agriculture processing grants.

The third round of grants will have a February deadline, and that’s the last year of these grants.  Funding is coming from the state and federal governments and from two private foundations.  One of the private foundations is the John Merck Fund, and the other one, which provided $450,000, wishes to remain anonymous.

The dairy farm as an organism

by Bethany M. Dunbar, the Chronicle, September 29, 1993

WESTFIELD — Jack Lazor is wearing a greasy cap, trying to keep his spirits up as he pulls straw out of a clogged-up John Deere.  He has less than an acre on one field to get in before the sun, which is sinking fast, hits the horizon.  The wind is picking up, a frost is predicted, and there’s the cows to be milked before the day is done.  In short, he looks just about like any old dairy farmer in Orleans County having a bad day.

He is — except for a couple of pretty major differences.

For one thing, his farm is organic and he grows all his own grain.  The clogged-up John Deere is not the usual tractor often seen haying or chopping corn in this area.  It’s a combine Mr. Lazor is using to get in the barley he’ll feed his herd of Jerseys over the winter to supplement hay and other feeds grown right on the place.

He doesn’t buy any commercial grain from off the farm at all.  Although this is not a requirement for an organic farm, Jack and his wife, Anne, had enough land and energy to give growing their own grain a try.  On roughly 130 acres of tillage and pasture, they have proven it can be done.

The other major difference on this farm is that the Lazors cut out some of the middlemen by selling dairy products themselves.  Their manufacturing and distribution company sells yogurt and cream under the brand name of Butterworks Farm.

As consumers become more and more concerned about the wholesomeness of the food they buy and eat, demand continues to grow for the Lazors’ yogurt.  In fact, business is doing so well the Lazors have invested over $100,000 in the last couple of years to meet the demand for their natural products.  They are working on breaking into out-of-state markets as far south as Virginia, and they are toying with the idea of finding another farm that would convert to organic dairying in order to ship its milk to Butterworks.

They believe they could pay someone in the neighborhood of $20 a hundredweight, or $1.72 a gallon, for organic milk.  The average price farmers got for milk in August was $12.60 a hundredweight, or $1.08 a gallon.

Part of the reason Mr. Lazor can grow enough grain to feed the herd is that he doesn’t need to feed much.  With a fairly intricate and intensive rotational grazing system set up, Mr. Lazor manages his pasture to the point that he only feeds about ten pounds of grain a day to his 43 milkers, and still they average around 40 pounds of milk a day (a little more than four and a half gallons).  The herd makes enough milk for Butterworks to produce about 3,000 quarts of yogurt a week.

Mr. Lazor hammer-mills the barley into meal and bales up the leftover straw for bedding.  It works much better than sawdust, he said, and he saves money there, too, by not having to buy bedding.

This past summer, the Lazors participated in a rotational grazing program with the University of Vermont (UVM) Extension System that gave them more detailed information to back up what they already knew – that rotational grazing and pasture management make sense economically.

Mrs. Lazor said the idea is to treat the pasture as if it was a crop.  That means testing the crop and the soil fairly regularly.  Some of the forage samples came back 23 to 26 percent protein.

On many farms, the pasture is the roughest land, put into that use because it isn’t good enough for haying.  But pasture management advocates suggest if farmers take a closer look, they might get more out of their pastureland.

Rotational grazing means setting up lots of tiny pastures, and turning the cows into each one for only a short time.  The Lazors give the herd about 12 hours on each one-third to one-half-acre paddock.  All this takes a lot of electric fence and a water system that allows them to drink in each paddock.  It also takes a little record-keeping or a least a good memory to figure out which paddock they should be in on a given day.

Until this year, the Lazors had a rotational grazing program but without the water system.  Mr. Lazor said the water system, basically a series of pipes and hoses and a large transportable bucket, makes a lot of difference.  Before, the cows would wander back up to the barn to drink out of a tank.

Unfortunately, they usually didn’t make it back to the paddock before letting loose a little of the best-known organic fertilizer Vermont farms have to offer.  So the paddocks directly below the water tank were nice and green while the ones off in other directions didn’t do so well.

This year, fertilization is more regular, and the cows are milking better.

The Lazors got in on a new program funded partly with a grant from the Kellogg’s Foundation.  (Mr. Lazor said you’re getting something with your cornflakes.)  The program worked with 22 farms, mostly in Franklin County, but a few others around the edges.

“We’re hoping to expand it north and south,” said Lisa McCrory of the UVM Pasture Management Outreach Program, but that depends on getting more grant funds.  Even if it only continues on the current level, there will be five or six openings next summer because some people who have been on it for a few years will be ready to quit.

The program includes a farm visit every three weeks by a pasture specialist like Ms. McCrory, who takes forage and soil samples.  Farmers are assisted with record-keeping and any problems that arise, and cows are periodically checked for body condition, to make sure they’re staying healthy.

Ms. McCrory said she’s found pasture management can result in substantial feed cost savings.  On one farm, pasture management saved $12,000 a year, she said.

Another component of the program is regular farm meetings.  During these meetings, held on a different farm each session, there is a tour and brief presentations.  But most of the meeting is left for people to ask questions and talk over different farm management techniques.

One of these meetings is coming up in Montgomery on October 6 at the Mark Brouillette farm, and another is coming up at an organic dairy in Addison County October 13.  There is another in Stowe on October 20, and another October 27 at the Brian and Lisa Stone farm in Montpelier on the subject of seasonal dairying.  Anyone who wants more information on pasture management or the meetings can call Ms. McCrory at 656-0641.

The pasture management program is part of another program, called Environmental Programs In Communities (EPIC), which includes everything from helping towns start conservation commissions to rural marketing techniques for economic growth.

Ms. McCrory said pasture management is “environmentally sound” because the farmer puts less extraneous stuff into the land.

Mr. Lazor said he likes dairy farming for that reason – it inherently values the land, crops and everything, not just the cows and milk.  He found a book about dairying published in 1905 that looked at the farm as an organism.

“It’s the kindest farming there is,” he said.

He said a lot of people have the impression that organic farming is negative – you can’t do this, and you can’t do that.  But he doesn’t look at it that way.  He said he doesn’t go around his farm with a rulebook in hand.  Rather, he has a certain frame of mind about daily decisions.  He likes to think of organic farming as promoting life on every level.

Rather than using antibiotics on sick cows, the Lazors use homeopathic cures – a tiny dose of belladonna or poison ivy or some other herb or natural cure depending on the malady.  Mrs. Lazor said she believes the cures work on basically the same principle as vaccinations.  They stimulate the body to fight off the disease.

Antibiotics kill off the disease instead, and Mrs. Lazor’s point was that they kill off lots of other things in the body at the same time.  While their use is not completely forbidden for organic farmers, it is discouraged.  If antibiotics are used, the milk must be kept out of the tank for two or three times longer than on a regular farm.

Growing corn organically is trickier than with herbicides, but Mr. Lazor said there are benefits to the soil, and he enjoys the challenge.  Putting herbicides on the corn kills some helpful bacteria and worms, he mentioned.

Having lived in Wisconsin, where corn ears are harvested with a combine rather than chopping up the whole stalk for silage, he was interested in giving that a try.  He had some success, but in general he prefers barley as a mainstay grain.

Mr. Lazor grows a lot of clover and alfalfa hay, rotating fields from one crop to another to help keep weeds down and improve the soil.

At the beginning of September, he had fields of alfalfa that were knee-high, as lush, thick, and even as any in the county.  It was ready to be cut – for the third time this year.

When the Lazors started farming in Westfield in the late ’70s, theirs was the only organic dairy farm in the state.  Trial and error was the name of the game, and gradually they made contacts all over the country.  It’s an interesting network of people, Mr. Lazor said.  He seems to have a constant stream of visitors who are curious about the operation.

One day earlier this month, a fellow from New York State was visiting, interested in seeing the Lazors’ methods firsthand because he was considering adopting them.  Another fellow, a mechanic between jobs who happened to stop for some milk, got talking with them and wound up staying a few days and fixing some machinery.

Last week there was a film crew from public television, working on a series about agriculture.  The Lazors are also going to be featured soon in a national organic farming magazine.

The Lazors started out with a stovetop yogurt-making operation, and that has grown to a shiny manufacturing plant.  It may be small by industry standards, but it’s impressive nonetheless.

A filling and capping machine, to meet state Department of Agriculture no-touch regulations, cost $35,000.  The Lazors also recently put an addition on to separate the manufacturing area from the shipping area.  They added a walk-in cooler and set up a loading dock for loading the truck.  They bought a secondhand refrigerated truck, and they’re working on getting a costly interstate shipping license.

Mr. Lazor said in general he feels the Department of Agriculture has gone to bat for Butterworks and supported its efforts.  But he’s not wild about the Department’s latest kick – which he calls “condiment agriculture” – spending so much of its time promoting specialty foods like hot sauce, ketchup, and salsa made in Vermont.

“It’s a very limited market.  They’re all sold to yuppie types who are as fickle as hell, so maybe they’ll be onto some other kick next year.  We kind of feel like we’re not into specialty foods.  I like those fancy cheeses and everything, but I don’t really know if they’re the answer.”

Originally from Connecticut, Mr. Lazor grew up on a hobby farm with an apple orchard and other small projects going on.  He studied the history of American agriculture at Tufts University and worked on an historical farm at Sturbridge Village, which is where he and Anne met.  She is originally from Massachusetts.  Mr. Lazor first came to Vermont when he got a job on a dairy farm in Barnet.

The Lazors have one daughter, Christine, who is 14 and is home-schooled.  Anne and Christine Lazors’ biggest hobby is riding horses, and they were working this week on building a new stall.

Mr. Lazor said he doesn’t really have hobbies.

“I’m really pretty dull,” he said.  He prefers to spend his time comparing notes on nutrients in alfalfa.

He mentioned he gets a lot of encouragement and inspiration from the regular dairy farmers in the area, and the grain farmers in Canada.

“My favorite thing to do is talk to other farmers,” he said.  “A good organic farmer and a good regular farmer are very, very similar, at least in their cropping.”

Organic dairies are holding their own

by Bethany M. Dunbar, the Chronicle, May 19, 2010

WESTFIELD – Life on an organic dairy farm is not easy.  But the 39 organic farms in Orleans County are probably losing less money right now than the conventional farmers.

Karen and Allan Bathalon of Paddlebridge Holsteins are glad they made the switch.

The Bathalons both grew up on dairy farms and always wanted to farm.  They got married in 1998 and went into farming the conventional way.  But it was so difficult to make ends meet they decided to transition to organic.

They did not make the change based on the philosophy of organics, but now that they are milking that way, they can see that it’s healthier.

“I think the big thing is our price is stable,” said Mr. Bathalon.  “It was a business decision,” agreed Mrs. Bathalon.

“If you love your animals, once you start being organic you just know it’s so much better,” she said.

Sienna, Autumn, Karen, Maeve, and Allan Bathalon pose with their dogs and Holstein dairy cows at their organic farm, Paddlebridge Holsteins in Westfield. Photo by Bethany M. Dunbar

Mr. Bathalon said there are some rules that make no sense to him, but he follows them because they are about something that’s important to the organic consumers.

Unlike most conventional dairy farmers these days, whose milk check is determined by a complicated federal plan, the Bathalons’ milk price is determined by the cooperative that buys their milk.

There are two major buyers for organic milk in Vermont, Horizon and Organic Valley.

“Organic Valley has instituted a quota system,” said Ed Maltby of the Northeast Organic Dairy Producers Alliance based in Massachusetts.  The alliance advocates for farmers and Mr. Maltby follows the markets closely.

He said Organic Valley’s quota system is calling for about 7 percent less milk than it bought last year.  Meanwhile Horizon has asked producers to reduce production by 5 to 10 percent in the past year.

But recently Horizon has started allowing farmers to go back to their original production levels from a year ago, Mr. Maltby said, so it seems that the organic market might be picking up again.

From his standpoint, there are three types of organic dairy farmers.  One group has been running organic dairies for a long time, has little debt, and is holding their own right now.

A middle group does not have a huge amount of debt but transitioned from conventional farming more recently and is struggling a bit more.  The transition costs average about $50,000 to $60,000 per farm.

The third group is really stuck right now – young new farmers or those who made the transition right before the recession.  These farms had hopes of slowly expanding in some cases and now they are in a bad position.

Mr. Maltby said the average milk price for organic dairy farms in New England is about $26 a hundredweight ($2.24 per gallon).  He said the average cost of production on an organic dairy farm is about $30 per hundredweight ($2.58 a gallon), if the formula for cost of production includes things like a return on equity, health insurance for the family, and enough money to send the kids to college.

If you consider the person running a dairy farm to be equivalent to middle management with that kind of pay scale, the cost of production is more like $34, ($2.92 a gallon) he said.

The milk price for conventional farmers is more like $11.56 for a hundredweight ($0.99 a gallon) compared to a cost of production around $18 (1.69 a gallon).

Mr. Maltby has followed the political debates about what to do with the milk price for conventional farmers, and he says it’s important to think about what kind of dairy system the country wants in the future.  If the country wants all its milk from huge farms out west, that’s one thing.  But he believes that consumers want to get their milk from smaller farms all around the country.

If that’s the case, policy should reflect cost of production differences in different regions, he suggested.

“Any solution can’t just be political,” he added.  The farmers themselves and the dairy industry must get together, he said.

Dave Rogers at the Northeast Organic Farming Association of Vermont agrees with Mr. Maltby’s assessment.

“Most organic dairy farmers are having a tough time,” he said.  “This is an incredibly deep recession, so sales of everything has dropped.”

He added, “There are a lot of creative organic dairy farmers out there growing their own grain” and figuring out other ways to cut costs.

A new pasture rule for organic farmers should help Vermont and the organic dairy industry overall, Mr. Rogers said.

“We’re very happy with the new pasture rule.”

Essentially, the new federal rule requires the same thing Vermont organic farmers have been doing for years:  cows must be on pasture 120 days a year,  have a chance to get outside for exercise and fresh air every day, and 30 percent of their dry matter intake must be from grass.

“The large scale producers, particularly out west, have had to trim their herds back,” Mr. Rogers said.

Mr. Maltby agrees the pasture rule is a good thing for farmers and consumers.  Consumers will be able to know that the cows whose milk they are drinking are getting outside and eating grass.

“It’s third-party certified.  It’s not a marketing trick,” he said.

He said the large organic dairies have known the new rule was coming and have made adjustments.  The pasture rules will make it harder for new really large farms to get started because they will have to have a large amount of land to comply.

He said the next question is likely to be water, and, as he put it, “What is the role of irrigated dairies?”

The Bathalons in Westfield made the transition to organic starting in 2003 and were certified organic in 2004.

Money is tight, but they are making ends meet.

“We’re not extravagant,” said Mrs. Bathalon.  They don’t take vacations.

They enjoy the rhythm and process of farm life – the internal clock that says it’s time to hay or milk or plant crops.

“It’s almost like being in synch with something,” said Mrs. Bathalon.

Mr. Bathalon has worked outside the farm driving a truck and in a factory, but he always wanted to get back to farming.

“When we started farming our goal was milk production,” Mrs. Bathalon said, and the average amount of milk each cow in the herd made in a year reached 24,000 pounds.

Farming organically, the pressure is off to make as much milk.  The herd average is down around 17,000.

The Bathalons have four children, Autumn, 18, Zach, 17, Sienna, ten, and Maeve, seven.

Orleans County has 39 organic dairy farms, 139 dairy farms in all.

There are about 200 organic dairies in the state, about 1,000 dairy farms in all.

Vermont Secretary of Agriculture Roger Allbee predicted recently that if nothing changes, the state could lose 200 of them this year.